The principal outcome measure of this

The principal outcome measure of this retrospective study was biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), specifically postprostatectomy PSA, measured from date of prostatectomy to date of first rising PSA level of≥0.2ng/ml, or last follow-up or death, if no PSA rise occurred. Patients with stable postoperative PSAs at 0.1ng/ml were not considered to have had biochemical relapse. Secondary objectives included analysis of factors associated with bRFS, and identification of low- or high-risk subsets based on this.

Results
Between January 2003 and December 2010, 544 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer underwent radical prostatectomy at the study institutions, of whom 155 had an involved margin and met study eligibility criteria. Patient demographics and preoperative staging information are outlined in Table 1. Surgical and pathology data are demonstrated in Table 2. Of note, for 149 patients with reviewable margin site data, 51 (34%) had margin involvement at a site of pseudocapsule invasion. Analysis of differences between the subpopulations with vs. without margin involvement at a site of d-glucose invasion is demonstrated in Table 3.
At a median follow-up of 68.3 months (range: 21.8–144.9, with 65% followed ≥5y), 62 patients had experienced biochemical relapse at a median of 20.4 months (1.2–124.1). These included 28 of 51 patients (55%) with positive margin at site of pseudocapsule invasion vs. 33 of 97 (34%) with positive intraparenchymal margin (P = 0.017; hazard ratio = 1.853), with 5-year PSA relapse rates of 48.7% (95% CI, 34.2%–63.2%) and 34.0% (23.9%–44.1%), respectively (Fig. 1).
Univariate analysis of factors associated with bRFS demonstrated statistically significant associations with preprostatectomy PSA, primary Gleason grade and overall score at both biopsy and prostatectomy, and pathologic T stage, in addition to margin involvement in an area of demonstrated pseudocapsule invasion (Table 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated younger age and higher preprostatectomy PSA as independently significant for biochemical relapse (Table 5). Owing to overlap of pathologic T stage and our primary variable (margin involvement at site of pseudocapsule invasion/penetration), the multivariate analysis was performed without inclusion of pT stage in the model; however, the primary variable remained nonsignificant (P = 0.266; Exp(b) = 1.358), with age and PSA remaining statistically significantly independent.

Discussion
The present study findings confirm that all patients with involved surgical margins have elevated risk of PSA relapse at 5 years postprostatectomy (42% in the present study), in the absence of adjuvant therapy. This aligns well with 33% to 60% reported elsewhere in the literature [4,5,8,9]. Further, these findings build on previously-reported experiences of pathology-determined subset creation, including extent of margin involvement (particularly when analyzed by Gleason score of the prostatectomy specimen) [6,7]. In 1 retrospective series, investigators from the University of Western Ontario (Canada) described outcomes for patients with node-negative/seminal vesicle-uninvolved prostatectomy with EPE and involved margins [7]. The study demonstrated a higher rate of biochemical failure for patients with EPE and involved margin (52%) as compared with those who had involved margin without EPE (25%), similar to our own study findings. The primary weaknesses of these data were small subset sizes and the inclusion of patients treated with various adjuvant therapies (including radiation or hormone therapy, or both), including 13 of 28 with extraprostatic extension plus involved margins and 4 of 23 with negative margins (Fig. 2).
Prior studies have reported elevated rates of biochemical relapse when the pseudocapsule is transected [10,11]. Investigators from Vanderbilt University described outcomes for 200 node-negative, seminal vesicle-uninvolved patients with “capsular incision,” with or without demonstration of EPE and/or posterolateral margin involvement (positive apical or bladder base margin excluded) [10]. By 3 years postprostatectomy, patients with positive margin at posterolateral capsular incision site(s) demonstrated significantly higher biochemical relapse rates than margin-negative pT2 or pT3a patients (35% vs. 4% and 9%, respectively), and similar to that of pT3a/margin-positive cases (42%). Similarly, investigators from Johns Hopkins University identified 135 cases of capsular incision, demonstrating higher rates of biochemical relapse for these cases as compared with pseudocapsule-intact historical controls [11]. Further subset analysis yielded a 5-year biochemical relapse rate of 42% for patients with extensive EPE and positive margin [11]. These findings align well with the current study, both in overall findings and rates of relapse. Specific to the present study, which included only patients with involved surgical margins, we demonstrated that involvement of the margin at a site of pseudocapsule invasion or penetration conferred a significantly higher risk of early recurrence than an intraparenchymal margin. This differs from the Vanderbilt series, in which these subsets did not differ significantly, perhaps owing to early (3y) outcome d-glucose data or small population size (n = 24 and 18, respectively) [10]. Similarly, the Hopkins series, which did report 5-year outcomes, actually had median 3-year follow-up, and raw numbers for EPE subsets were not reported [11]. Moreover, neither series mentions specifically whether patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy were specifically excluded, which could have further obscured outcome differences between subsets. To our knowledge, the current study represents the most robust quality data on this topic, in population size and characteristics, as well as duration of follow-up. Whether the differences in outcomes between subsets are attributable to differences in associated residual tumor burden or an indirect characteristic of more aggressive tumor biology remains to be determined. The failure of pseudocapsule invasion at the positive margin site to remain significant in a multivariate analysis, which included Gleason score may indirectly suggest such a correlation. Longer follow-up may additionally assist in determining patterns of failure, which could help to determine which patients may benefit from adjuvant (or salvage) radiotherapy. Additionally, identification and validation of biomolecular markers or panels of markers associated with local vs. distant patterns of failure could significantly improve individualization of therapy [12].

Distribution of the surveys followed Dillman and consisted

Distribution of the surveys followed Dillman (2000) and consisted of sending an introductory postcard to all potential participants announcing the forthcoming survey emailing. A web link and private access code to the survey were then emailed to them, and one week later a reminder email with the same access information was sent. Approximately three weeks after the electronic mailing of the survey, a print copy of the survey and cover letter were mailed to potential participants who had not yet responded to the survey. A final reminder notification was sent to remaining participants approximately 10 days after mailing the print copy. Survey responses were tabulated and analyzed upon return.
Descriptive statistics were computed for the data set and frequency tables were analyzed for trends in response and program obstacles and priorities and to make comparisons across respondent position or jurisdiction type (Elmendorf et al., 2003).

Results
A total of 96 surveys were returned for an overall response rate of 27.4%. The response rate for both Dioscin cost officials and program managers, individually, was 13.7%. The response rate for small cities was 9.4%; for large cities, it was 15.4%; and for counties, 2.6% (Table 1).
To help alleviate any biases caused by possible differences between the non-respondents and respondents, the demographics (jurisdiction type and respondent position) of the sample population compared to the known demographics of the target population were explored. Chi-squared statistics were used to test if the distribution of the sampled population across jurisdiction type or position differed between respondents and non-respondents (Vaske, 2008). Results indicated that there was strong evidence that the distribution across position differed between respondents and non-respondents (χ216.41, p<0.001); however, when considering jurisdiction type, there was no evidence that the distribution differed between respondents and non-respondents (χ22.69df=2, p0.261) (Table 2). To account for the fact that community officials responded less than expected in the sample compared to the target population (Table 2), data were weighted according to respondent position (Vaske, 2008). The non-response weights were calculated by dividing the expected proportion in each position from the target population by the observed proportion in the sample (Vaske, 2008). When using non-response weighting, a group that is underrepresented in the sample is given a higher weight, and the overrepresented group is given lower weights. In this study, because community officials responded less than expected each case from a community official is multiplied by 1.338 in the analysis while the over-represented group, program managers, is multiplied by 0.662.

Discussion
The response rate of 27.4% for this survey was low compared to similar urban forestry surveys. Comparable surveys at a state-wide level obtained a response rate on average of approximately 51.0%, with 22.0% (Schroeder et al., 2003) being the lowest response rate and 71.0% (Elmendorf et al., 2003) being the highest. Despite a lower than expected response rate, a review of several studies suggest that small communities and counties typically have limited or no urban forestry programs that may account, in part, for the lower response rate as they did not see urban forestry in their purview (Elmendorf et al., 2003; Grado et al., 2006).
The findings indicate that there is a strong interest in urban forestry programs by most community officials and program managers from municipal governments in the Portland – Vancouver region and are consistent with similar research studies (Grado et al., 2006). Prior to this study, little information was available regarding county perceptions of urban forestry programs in the Portland – Vancouver region. Results presented here suggest that counties may be less interested in expanding urban forestry programs compared to municipalities. Reasons for this lack of interest could stem from inadequate knowledge about the benefits of urban trees or a lack of demand on the part of their constituents or officials. Counties also differ in their organizational structure compared with cities and offer different services related to public trees; as such, trees may not be considered a management priority of these unincorporated urban areas. Furthermore, counties may lack the tools and resources needed to expand their urban forestry programs as they typically are not targeted by state and national urban forestry assistance programs.

In recent years many studies have been conducted to

In recent years, many studies have been conducted to reveal the epothilone and the composition of the street trees in many cities across the world (Santos et al., 2010; Nagendra and Gopal, 2010; Kuruneri-Chitepo and Shackleton, 2011; Sreetheran et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012; Kendal et al., 2012; Deb et al., 2013; Breuste, 2013). The studies mostly reported the existing status of the diversity and composition of the street trees in the urban streetscape. There is little knowledge to demonstrate the changes in the diversity and composition of cultivated trees in urban streets (Kirkpatrick et al., 2011), particularly the changes in the diversity and the composition of exotic and native species along different socioeconomic gradients of the streets of any mega city. Nevertheless, many studies reported existing variations in the diversity and the composition of trees along different socioeconomic gradients of urban landscape (Hope et al., 2003; Kinzig et al., 2005; Kuruneri-Chitepo and Shackleton, 2011). Moreover, the composition and the diversity of the trees in the streetscape of Karachi – the world’s largest city – has never been studied.

Materials and methods

Data analysis

Results

Discussion
The results demonstrate that the species diversity along the street in Karachi was moderate in 1993, while it was extremely low along the same street in 2013, if compared with other cities of the world (Sun, 1992; Sreetheran et al., 2011). Sun (1992) reported inverse SDI of street tree populations of 21 cities of different continents. In 1993, the SDI of the populations along Corridor I of Karachi was greater than those of 11 cities. While in 2013, the SDI of the populations along the same corridor was smaller than those of all the 21 cities (Sun, 1992). Moreover, in 1993, the Shannon’s diversity Index of the populations along the corridor was larger than those of 15 cities of the U.S.A. (McPherson and Rowntree, 1989). Nevertheless, in 2013, the Shannon’s Index of the populations along the same corridor was smaller than those of all the 15 cities of U.S.A.
However, later, the civic agency started large-scale monoculture plantings and replacements of most of the species with one or two species since this was financially feasible for the agency (Menghwar, 2013). The agency’s influence on street tree plantings appears to be the main reason for the substantial decline of species diversity and species richness in the city. For instance, G. officinale (a native of Tropical America) and Eucalyptus (Australian native) were extensively planted during 1980s and 1990s in the streetscape of Karachi.
Nevertheless, during the first decade of this millennium, Eucalyptus was virtually removed from the streetscape of the city, mainly due to their fast growing behavior. The trees of Eucalyptus damaged many above-ground and underground civic services like electrical wires, telephone cables, water and sewerage system in Karachi over the years. The performance of G. officinale has not been very promising in the city center (Beg and Shams, 1989). In the heavily air polluted downtown, most of the plants were infested by pests. Furthermore, they demonstrated stunted growth in the air polluted city center. Moreover, they rarely flower in the downtown due to air pollution. Nevertheless, in the suburban areas of Karachi, they flower almost throughout the year. The agency, which was earlier responsible for extensive plantings of G. officinale and Eucalyptus in Karachi, is currently engaged in the large scale replacement of both the species with C. erectus—another exotic species. Eucalyptus was previously the most frequent plant on the corridor and now C. erectus is the most frequent species of the corridor.
Monoculture planting practices in Karachi particularly in recent years, which reduces species diversity, may increase the risk of potential damages from the environmental changes, diseases and insect infestation. The monoculture plantings have caused huge losses in many urban landscapes of the world. For instance, Dutch elm disease (Ophiostoma ulmi) has devastated millions of American elm trees (Ulmus americana), which were planted extensively in the urban landscape across the Midwestern and Northeastern parts of the United States (Raupp et al., 2006). Increasing species diversity is considered as the primary factor to buffer the populations of urban forest against catastrophic loss from pests, diseases and other threats (McPherson and Kotow, 2013).

br Results Fig illustrates pavement temperature

Results
Fig. 1 illustrates pavement temperature measurements 5cm below the surface on July 7th, 8th, 10th, 11th, 20th and 22nd. Dot-dashed lines indicate watering cycles. July 7th, 11th and 20th are used as control days and paired with the watered days July 8th, 10th and 22nd for comparison and analysis of pavement-watering effects.
On control days, pavement temperatures range from a low of 23–29°C to a high of 38–43°C. The average temperature amplitude on control days is approximately 14.6°C. Temperatures decrease by 0.5°C on average from 6am until approximately 8am when they reach their daily low value. They then slowly increase until pavement insolation begins at 1:35pm. At that time, temperatures rise sharply and level off at their daily maximum about one hour before insolation ends at 6:30pm. Pavement temperatures then decrease until the next day when the pikfyve inhibitor restarts.
On watered days, this range is reduced to between 23–30°C and 31–37°C. The daily temperature amplitude is nearly halved, averaging approximately 7.7°C. Compared to control days, morning pavement-watering significantly increases and prolongs the temperature decrease phase until 1:35pm. The morning temperature drop is increased to 2.8°C on average. As a result, daily minimum temperatures are practically unchanged compared to control days despite higher temperatures at 6am, before morning watering. In the afternoon, the temperature increase is significantly shortened, leveling off much sooner as watering resumes. The time at which the daily high temperature is reached is unchanged by watering. As pavement insolation ends, temperatures decrease until the end of the day. In all the watered days considered here, an interruption in this decrease occurs about 2.5h after sunset, as the remaining water film completely evaporates from the pavement surface.
Mean temperatures from 3pm to 6:30pm are reduced by 6°C on July 8th compared to July 7th, by 5°C on July 22nd compared to July 20th, and by 6.5°C on July 10th compared to July 11th.
Table 1 summarizes daily low and high pavement temperatures as well as the daily temperature amplitude. Control and watered days are paired to improve comparability and presented by order of intensifying watering strategy (see Hendel et al., 2015a).

Discussion
The effect of pavement-watering on 5cm pavement temperatures is clear: compared to control days, temperatures drop by an average 5.9°C in the afternoon and the morning temperature decrease is increased by 2.3°C and is prolonged until the beginning of pavement insolation. Furthermore, the daily temperature amplitude is nearly halved. Sensible heat storage by the pavement 5cm below its surface is therefore offset by about five hours.
These findings compare well with previous work by Asaeda et al. (1996), Kinouchi and Kanda (1998) and Li et al. (2013). Indeed, Asaeda et al. studied a 30cm thick slab of asphalt concrete in Japan in the suburban area of Greater Tokyo in nearly unmasked conditions instrumented with thermocouples at different depths including 5cm (Asaeda et al., 1996). In their paper, the authors report 5cm temperatures ranging from 26° to 48°C, thus an amplitude of 22°C, for air temperatures ranging from approximately 23° to 35°C. No watering of the pavement slabs was conducted. Also in Japan, Kinouchi and Kanda studied a watered permeable pavement, also in nearly unmasked conditions, equipped with a pavement sensor at a depth of 5cm (Asaeda et al., 1996). Air temperatures on the reported days ranged from 20–23°C to 30–35°C. The authors found daily low and high pavement temperatures in the order of 25°C and 40–45°C, similar to Asaeda et al. (1996), in dry conditions, respectively. On watered days, these temperature extremes were reduced to 23°C and 35–38°C. Finally, Li et al. also study standard and pervious asphalt pavements in Davis, California (Li et al., 2013). Impervious and pervious pavement temperatures 6.5cm deep are nearly identical in dry conditions and range from roughly 25°C to 51°C for air temperatures between 16°C and 37°C. Watering the pervious pavements causes an initial 14°C drop in temperatures, followed by a steadier 5–7°C reduction compared to the dry impervious asphalt concrete.

Previous studies Masson et al Lemonsu et

Previous studies (Masson et al., 2014; Lemonsu et al., 2015) handle several parameters of the urban change dynamics, simultaneously (e.g. building renovation, alternative building geometries, socio-economic scenarios) whereas we target only the impact of the macro-scale urban forms on the space heating nociceptin receptor demands in buildings. Thus, no changes in the building geometry, insulating properties, and household behavior are represented.
Three types of built developments have been simulated and compared: compact, moderately compact, and spontaneous developments. The compact and moderately compact scenarios represent a tight control over urban development and result in infilling and edge growth urban developments, respectively. The spontaneous scenario is a kind of neutral landscape scenario (Gardner et al., 1987; Hagen-Zanker and Lajoie, 2008), for which a randomized situation is created starting from the 2010 initial built pattern. The only planning constraint taken into account is the delineation of non-developable zones set in the urban development plan of the region under study.

Data and study area
The study was conducted over Strasbourg-Kehl urban region (Fig. 1, France–Germany) and its main urban center, Strasbourg (48°35′05″N and 7°45′02″E, elevation: ca. 132m). With 768,868 individuals (INSEE, 2012), the Strasbourg metropolitan area is one of about twenty medium-sized cities of France. This study area is characterized by a high population density and the concentration of skilled tertiary and industrial jobs. Unlike Toulouse agglomeration (43° 36′ 16″ North, 1° 26′ 38″ East; 920, 402 inhab.), studied by Masson et al. (2014), Strasbourg-Kehl urban region is characterized by a loss of attractiveness. Actually, a small positive population growth is currently reported in the urban agglomeration of Strasbourg (+0.4% between 2007 and 2012; INSEE, 2012). Still, an increasing demand for housing and floor space per capita in nociceptin receptor housings are observed in the meantime.
As shown in Fig. 1, residential property, transportation infrastructure, retail services, and production units make up one-third of the land uses in the study area. The remaining land is fertile loess agricultural soils (47% of the total area) and natural land (16% of the study area), currently protected by European environmental directives (79/409/EEC, 92/43/EEC, and 2000/60/EEC). With an oceanic climate characterized by well-defined seasons (Köppen type Cfb, cold and foggy winters and continental climatic influences in summer) the study area is characterized by a predominant space heating energy demand (ASPA, 2012). Currently, only 3.6% of the French dwellings are equipped with an air conditioning according to the French ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development (www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Rapport_clim_Art5_LG1_280811.pdf). The equipped dwellings are, mainly, located in the South of France. With the global warming trend, the climate of Strasbourg is expected to be similar to the climate of the South of France by 2100. According to the regional direction of industry, research and environment (DRIRE, 2000), the air conditioning is not expected to increase significantly in the North of France. Moreover, the penetration of the air conditioning units in the residential dwellings is very difficult to predict. Thus, we focus only on the space heating energy demand in buildings, and exclude the cooling energy demand.
The availability of a high-resolution housing, population, and land use land cover data were, also, considered in choosing the Strasbourg-Kehl urban region. The vector 2012 IGN BdTOPO® building database of the National Geographic Institute (IGN, http://professionnels.ign.fr/bdtopo), which maps in 2D all built elements larger than 1m2 throughout the metropolitan area of Strasbourg, was used to describe the building geometry of the housing stock. The 1999 updated population census of the National Statistics Institute (INSEE) was used to quantify the dwelling floor density of the three urban types taken into consideration in the climate modeling: the high intense residential urban type, the low intense residential urban type, and the commercial and industrial urban type. The urban and regional plans (e.g. the local development plan) from the local urban stakeholders and planning agencies allowed us to design realistic urban development scenarios. Finally, the detailed 2000 and 2008 regional land use databases provided by the regional cooperation for geospatial information CIGAL®, respectively BdOcs_2000 and BdOcs_2008, were used to quantify the intensity of urbanization from 2000 to 2008 for the urban area of Strasbourg. The BdOcs_2000 is compiled from interpretations of 23m-resolution multispectral IRSS Indian satellite images and 15m-resolution 1997 orthophotographs of the French National Geographical Institute (IGN). The BdOcs_2008 combines the 2.5m-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images, the 50cm-resolution 2007 IGN orthophotographs, and local land registries. Since the BdOcs_2008 is more precise, it has been made consistent with the BdOcs_2000 (clustering of the 2008 land use categories; inventory of built land changes of >2500m2). In total 745.75ha were converted into built areas in eight years in the study area, which corresponds to an urbanization intensity of 93.22ha per year. Assuming that the urbanization rate remains uniform over the simulation period, we calculate that 1864ha of land will be built by 2030.

Despite the versatility and robustness of the soliton theory the

Despite the versatility and robustness of the soliton theory, the current form of the soliton model has some restrictions, which have been pointed out by Heimburg and his group (Blicher 2011). For instance, soliton theory is unable to model AP generation and propagation in non-myelinated axons. It is also not possible to predict the collision of two APs using the model (Lautrup et al. 2011). Moreover, our results indicate that the model is not able to predict the vanishing of the AP amplitude when a small segment of the nerve is sufficiently heated. Overall, it seems that the solitary pulse is too stable when it collides with other pulses or passes through a heated zone, and furthermore, it cannot be made to vanish.

Acknowledgments
We acknowledge technical help from Arthur Worthington, Pooya SobheBidari and Borna Maraghechi from the Advanced Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Ryerson University. We also thank Dr. Leyla Sadighpour from the Department of Prosthodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for her helpful comments on biological aspects of this study, and Dr. Margaret Buckby from the Department of Physics, Ryerson University, for English proofreading of the manuscript. This work was partially supported by the Ontario Research Fund—Research Excellence (ORF-RE) grant awarded to J. Tavakkoli.

Introduction
Coronary restenosis after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) occurs in as many as 30%–40% of patients post-procedure (Scheller et al. 2012). Treatment of restenosis with a balloon catheter is also challenged by high rates of restenosis. Other approaches, such as CB-5083 manufacturer of a stent and mechanical debunking, have not been that effective, as evidenced by the lack of significant reduction in recurrent restenosis (vom Dahl et al. 2002). Although the use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) for elective percutaneous interventions is popular and has significantly decreased the occurrence of restenosis or the need for repeat revascularization, they have not prevented restenosis completely. Rates of restenosis of 13%–20% with the Cypher stent and of 15%–22% with the Taxus stent have been reported (Riede et al. 2013).
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a treatment method that retards tumor growth through selective tumor cell killing (Mi et al. 2009; Rosenthal et al. 2004; Shibaguchi et al. 2011). In this method, intravenously administered sonosensitizers can locate and accumulate in the tumor region, and then be activated by low-intensity ultrasound to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Shibaguchi et al. 2011). Because it is a natural precursor to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a popular sonosensitizer, in the heme biosynthesis pathway, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) CB-5083 manufacturer is used in SDT (ALA-SDT) (Krammer and Plaetzer 2008). Our previous study found that ALA-SDT causes apoptosis of THP-1-derived macrophages, indicating a role for SDT in atherosclerosis (Cheng et al. 2012). Additionally, SDT reduced restenosis after stent implantation in the rabbit iliac artery (Arakawa et al. 2002). Nevertheless, the lack of data on the underlying mechanisms limits the application of SDT in inhibiting restenosis.
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are highly specialized cells, the principal functions of which are the contraction and regulation of blood vessel tone, blood pressure and blood flow (Rensen et al. 2007). In a mature blood vessel, VSMCs exhibit a differentiated phenotype characterized by low rate of proliferation and migration and the expression of contractile markers specific to smooth muscle, such as smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) (Rensen et al. 2007). During the process of restenosis, VSMCs transform from a differentiated phenotype to a dedifferentiated phenotype after vascular wall injury (Chen et al. 2004). The transformation process is associated with increased rates of proliferation, migration and synthesis of extracellular matrix components, whereas the expression of smooth muscle-specific contractile markers decreases (Chen et al. 2004). Therefore, promotion of VSMC differentiation might be a mechanism underlying the SDT-induced inhibition of restenosis.

br Methods br Simulation Study

Methods

Simulation Study

Experimental Study

Results

Discussion
Knowledge of the stress distribution within the fibrous cap could allow clinicians to predict the propensity of an atherosclerotic plaque to rupture; however, none of the conventional imaging modalities can visualize stress in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether IVUS elastography can visualize the stress distribution within vascular tissues. More specifically, we investigated how assumptions made during the modulus reconstruction process (i.e., Poisson\’s ratio and boundary conditions) affect the performance of stress elastograms. The key findings of this study were as follows. First, the reconstruction process recovered modulus buy D-Luciferin with an accuracy of approximately 20%–30% (Tables 2 and 3), which was consistent with our previously reported results (Richards and Doyley 2011). Second, stress and shear modulus elastograms generally performed the same irrespective of the value of Poisson\’s ratio used in the reconstruction process, except when reconstruction was performed under type 4 boundary conditions (Tables 1 and 3, Fig. 5). The analytical model reported in the Appendix predicted this behavior. More specifically, for the “pseudo”-incompressibility case, both the shear modulus and the pressure on the outer boundary will influence displacements computed during the image recovery process (see eqn 16) when type 2–4 boundary conditions are employed. This occurs because different combinations of modulus and pressure could yield the same displacement field, which becomes more significant as Poisson\’s ratio approaches 0.5 (see Fig. 9). Second, the magnitude of shear and the second Lamé coefficient (kPa for shear and GPa for lambda modulus) are noticeably different. Therefore, the displacement divergence (∇•u) term is dominated by lambda modulus, and displacements with very high signal-to-noise ratio will be needed to observe the changes in the divergence term when Poisson\’s ratio is varied from 0.45 to 0.495. Modulus and stress elastograms computed using type 1 boundary conditions were independent of Poisson\’s ratio because the displacement divergence term in the forward elasticity model was dominated by lambda modulus rather than shear modulus. Third, type 3 and 4 boundary conditions produced the most and least accurate elastograms (modulus and maximum principal stress), respectively (Fig. 5). Fourth, maximum principal stress was more prevalent in the circumferential than other coordinate directions (Figs. 4 and 8), which was consistent with theoretical predictions (Lee et al. 1993; Loree et al. 1992).
Stress imaging demands absolute values of shear modulus, which depends on the mechanical excitation (harmonic or quasi-static) and the boundary conditions (Dirichlet or Neumann) assumed during image reconstruction (Doyley et al. 2001). In general, most quasi-static inversion schemes provide relative estimates of shear modulus because Dirichlet boundary conditions are assumed during image reconstructions (Doyley 2012). However, a reference tissue or material of known modulus could be used to convert relative estimates of shear modulus to absolute values. In breast elastography, this is achieved by imaging through a standoff pad (Ophir et al. 1991); however, this approach is not feasible in intravascular applications. A better approach is to employ Neumann boundary conditions (stress or pressure) during image reconstruction, because clinicians routinely measure the pressure within the lumen during interventional procedures. Neumann boundary conditions allow the reconstruction process to provide absolute estimates of shear modulus without the need for calibration (Baldewsing et al. 2004b; Le Floc\’h et al. 2009; Richards and Doyley 2011) and provide more accurate estimates of shear modulus (Barbone and Bamber 2002). However, because the pressure on the outer boundary is unknown, one could ask the question, What would be the consequence of reconstructing shear modulus with an imprecise estimate of the traction on the outer boundary, that is, assuming traction is zero at the boundary?

Deferoxamine mesylate Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is known as a non-invasive, easily applicable, non-deleterious and beneficial treatment for bone fractures. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, many studies are investigating mechanical stimulation and signaling pathways (Kusuyama et al. 2014; Papachroni et al. 2009). The use of LIPUS has been studied frequently with respect to acceleration of bone healing using a frequency between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz, after the low-intensity range was determined. After consideration of the characteristics of ultrasound waves, researchers began to pay attention to high-frequency LIPUS therapy. In the three aforementioned studies using 3.0-MHz LIPUS, one study was on soft tissue healing and the other two were on new bone formation in nasal sinuses. The sinus is an empty cavity, and the condition of the sinus with the filling materials used in the two aforementioned studies differed from that of proper porous alveolar bone. Therefore, our study may be the first in vivo study in English to use LIPUS at a frequency of 3.0 MHz and intensity of 30 mW/cm2 to improve alveolar bone healing. Fujii et al. (2004) reported that there was significantly greater new bone growth around a dental implant after use of 3.0 MHz rather than 1.0 MHz in dog jaws, but that study was not in English.
There are some limitations to our study. Our sample size was small, even though this was a pilot study, and it Deferoxamine mesylate would have been better to compare our results with the results of use of a frequency of 1.0 MHz in rats to confirm the effects of higher-frequency LIPUS. When we compared the left non-LIPUS-treated sockets of rats whose right sockets had been treated with naturally healing sockets of rats not treated with LIPUS on either side, 3-MHz, 30-mW/cm2 LIPUS could affect the contralateral, untreated sockets of rats, and the differences between naturally healing and LIPUS-treated sockets were more marked than those between non-LIPUS-treated and LIPUS-treated sockets (data not shown). So, it would have been better to compare naturally healing sockets with LIPUS-treated sockets. Additionally, further investigations using the same parameters of LIPUS therapy on larger animals or using different parameters to elucidate the most effective ranges are required to establish more evidence for expanding the scope of LIPUS application.

Conclusions
Our study indicates that LIPUS treatment, at a frequency of 3.0 MHz and intensity of 30 mW/cm2, enhances alveolar bone formation and calcification as illustrated by histologic and histomorphometric results and expression of genes and proteins related to bone regeneration of teeth extraction sockets in rats. LIPUS can help shorten the healing time of intra-oral osseous wounds as well.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by a grant from Kyung Hee University in 2012 (KHU-20120473), a Technological Development Commercialization grant funded by the Small and Medium Business Administration (SMBA) of Korea (S2080517) and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (2012 R1 A5 A2051384).

Introduction
Thermal therapies have been used to treat benign and malignant diseases. For example, hyperthermia, in which tissue temperature is elevated to 41°C–45°C, has been used for cancer treatment in conjunction with radiation therapy and chemotherapy (Dewhirst et al. 1997; Franckena et al. 2009; Ryu et al. 2004; Zagar et al. 2010). Elevated temperatures are also exploited for controlled drug release (Staruch et al. 2011). High-temperature thermal ablations are employed to destroy diseased tissue through induction of coagulative necrosis (Goldberg et al. 2000). Among the common heat sources for thermal therapies, including high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), radiofrequency (RF) wave, microwave and laser, HIFU uses ultrasound energy, is non-invasive and is capable of inducing localized heating in deep tissue regions without affecting intervening tissue (Crouzet et al. 2010; Kennedy 2005).

The total content of extracted polyphenols depends

The total content of extracted polyphenols depends significantly on the nature of the solvent. The ethanol has a low-toxicity and has been commonly used to extract polyphenols from natural sources [29]. Additionally, it was recently reported that the highest content of phenolic compounds from wheat bran, an important by-product of the cereal industry was extracted with ethanol, followed by methanol and acetone [4].
In the industrial studies, there is a collection of statistical information based on experimental designs, which have demonstrated this method as being convenient for optimizing the processes or yield of the products [26,30]. Here we show the potential of UAE as a fast, high-yield production method of polyphenol – rich extracts (especially phenolic acids and flavonoids) from spruce bark. Several parameters which affect the extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized using a complete experimental design. Finally, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed model through an empirical approach.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Conclusions
The analysis of the different factors’ influence on the extraction yield as well as of their respective interactions was carried out by factorial ANOVA. At the same time, it was proven that the ethanol concentration was the most important variable, followed by time and temperature. Under optimal conditions, using the local max function from the MathCAD program, the model predicted a maximum yield of Cmax=13.232mgGAE/g spruce bark, when temperature is 54°C, for 60min. The optimum conditions were further applied for validating the model by an empirical approach.

Introduction
Perfluorooctanoic acetanilide (C7F15COOH, PFOA) is widely used in industry. It is used as a surface treatment agent in photolithography, an emulsifying agent in polymer synthesis, a fire retardant, and is one component of paper coating. It is very stable in the natural environment due to its strong C–F bonds (110kcal/mol) [1–3]. PFOA has been detected in aquatic environments and animals, and has been demonstrated to exhibit bioaccumulative and biomagnificative effects [4]. Therefore, there is interest in developing methods for PFOA removal.
It is currently known that PFOA can be degraded by photo-catalytic and Fenton oxidation [5], as well as by hydrothermal treatment. However, these treatment methods are largely inefficient, expensive and energy demanding. For example, hydrothermal treatment requires that the temperature be maintained at subcritical (100–350°C) or supercritical (>350°C) levels. While other methods exist to successfully remove other organic pollutants, such as conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), they generally utilize relatively inactive hydroxyl radicals and are inefficient in the destruction of PFOA [6]. On the other hand, sonochemical treatment exploits pyrolytic cleavages to destroy organic pollutants and is an emerging and effective method which can be used effectively to remove PFOA specifically [6–8].
Ultrasonic (US) treatment operates through cavitation, which not only produces plasma in water, thus degrading molecules by pyrolysis, but also produces free radicals and other reactive species that can enhance the number of collisions between free radicals and pollutants. US irradiation has been shown to enhance the degradation rate of various pollutants including phenol, dyes and pharmaceutical compounds [9–12]. Sonochemical degradation of organics can be further enhanced by the addition of additives such as photocatalytic compounds [5], exfoliated graphite [10], ozone [13], H2O2[14], elemental iron [15], carbonate [11], persulfate [16] and sulfate [17].
Sulfate radical is strongly oxidizing (E0=2.43V) [18] and is highly effective in degrading organic pollutants in water [19]. In comparison to hydroxyl radicals (E0=2.8V), sulfate radicals have a higher selectivity and effectiveness in oxidizing target chemical compounds because of their more electrophilic nature [9].

br Conclusions br Acknowledgement The authors are

Conclusions

Acknowledgement
The authors are thankful to CPEPA (Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area) Programme, CAS-II (Centre of Advanced Studies) Programme, sponsored by UGC New Delhi, Govt. of India.

Introduction
Ultrasonic irradiation (USI), as a safe technique and green beta amyloid source, has attracted many attentions of scientific and industrial researchers for several applications in chemical processes. In comparison with traditional methods, the procedure is more convenient, fast, simple and easily controlled. A large number of organic reactions can be carried out in higher yields, shorter reaction times or milder conditions under USI. An explanation to understanding to the acceleration of reactions under sonic condition can be explained by the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation and cage effects that perform high temperatures and pressures within few seconds and lead to acceleration of rate of the reactions, when compared to the traditional methods which generally require longer reaction time, high temperatures and expensive reagents. Therefore, this powerful technique can be regarded as an efficient reaction media for green, economical and environmentally-friendly approach in organic functional group productions/transformations such as nitration of aromatic compounds [1].
Recently, due to some drawbacks of ionic liquids such as toxicity, poor biodegradability, high cost, and difficulty in preparation methods, DESs, a new class of green reaction media, has been emerged as an interesting alternatives. DESs are generally composed of two or three safe and readily available and inexpensive components that are capable of associating with each other through hydrogen bonds. DESs naturally have a very high depression in freezing point and form liquids at temperatures between room temperature and 70°C. Moreover, since the purity of DESs only depends on the purity of their components, therefore, requires neither purification nor complex synthesis. They can be obtained via simple preparation procedure, high purity and relatively cheap cost. Due to these advantages, DESs are going to be favorable candidate in many field of technology e.g. catalysis, synthesis, reaction media, extraction processes, electrochemistry and material chemistry [2].
The process of nitration of aromatic compounds, as a very valuable organic reaction, could be achieved with many nitrating reagents. The NO2-substitued aromatics are extensively applied for the preparation of various chemically and pharmaceutically important products such as dyes, perfumes, plastics, explosives and so on. The traditional nitrations of aromatic compounds are routinely carried out under strongly acidic conditions such as concentrated H2SO4 and HNO3[3]. They usually produce a lot of acid waste that beta amyloid is not eco-friendly, is difficult and time-consuming for treatment and also causes damage of the equipment e.g. corrosion. These problems have generated many efforts for finding alternative methods for the nitration reaction. Therefore, there are various reports in the literature claiming agents and conditions for the nitration [3–17]. A few solid acid catalysts have been tested so far such as MoO3/SiO2[4], SO42−/SiO2[5], WO3–TiO2/SiO2[6], WO3–SO42−/SnO2[7], zeolite-based solid acid catalysts [8], melamine–(H2SO4)3[9] and polyvinylpyrrolidone–(H2SO4)n[10]. Also, various NO2+ sources such as nitronium salts in organic media [11], Zn(NO3)2·6H2O [12], guanidinium or alkyl nitrates [13], N2O4 or N2O5[14], acetyl nitrates [15] and other acids which are alternatives to sulfuric acid, have been used [16]. It has been claimed that those catalytic methods usually led to minimum byproducts and could produce the most important para isomer as the major product.
In recent decade, magnetic organic–inorganic nanocomposites have become of considerable interest because the magnetic catalysts in both academic and industrial fields have significant advantages. Core/shell nanomaterials and supported magnetic metal nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of nanocatalysts. Due to high surface area, nanocatalysts generally exhibit higher catalytic activity than classic heterogeneous acid catalysts. The SO3H-immobilized silica-coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles are a fantastic class of recoverable, supported and heterogeneous strong acidic catalysts for diverse chemical transformations. Other organic and inorganic compounds could be placed on magnetic nanoparticles coated with silica which could be used as a heterogeneous magnetic catalyst in chemical reactions [17–22].